The Benefits of New vs. the Hazards of Refurbished

Our customers’ reputation and livelihood depends on their ability to move goods safely and efficiently. Whether you’re a motor carrier or a freight forwarder, there’s too much at stake to risk your business and reputation on old, re-manufactured equipment.

A large portion of the fleet operating today is 25-30 years old, unsafe and needs to be replaced. In fact, the overall age and condition of the existing chassis fleet in the North American market is the biggest challenge facing the industry today.

New vs. Refurbished Chassis

“At the end of the day, a refurbished chassis is still an old chassis,” says Doug Hoehn, Executive Vice President of Chassis & Managed Assets at Milestone. “It may look good on the outside but you really don’t know how reliable it will be when the rubber meets the road.”

A refurbished chassis may be “like new,” but the reality is it’s an old, aging frame covered with standard zinc paint, which may or may not have radial tires (and may even have recapped tires) and may have 2-part, 5-spoke wheels which, if not installed properly, wobbles – creating a potential hazard on the road.

At Milestone, EVERY chassis is the most advanced chassis on the road. Our equipment is the most up-to-date and technologically advanced and features all new frame and components, powder coated paint (on all 2017 models and newer), LED lights, new OEM radial tires, ABS braking system and auto-inflation, hub-piloted disc wheels and no lube landing gear.

When it comes to safety, nothing is better than brand new.

Our nationwide network gives customers access to 30+ locations across the US, from New York and Atlanta to St. Louis and Los Angeles, and beyond. In addition, our customized leasing options give you the flexibility you need for your business.

It’s our mission to keep you moving. Safely, efficiently, and ensuring you peace of mind.

 

Read the Case Study – Quik Pick Express

 


 

Reliability, Delivered.

Outdated chassis is an industry-wide problem – stay ahead of the game with Milestone.

  • Customer: NRS

Request the Case Study

New vs. Refurbished Chassis: Brand New is Better for Your Bottom Line

No one wants to spend more to get less.

Unfortunately, with refurbished chassis you run the risk of older equipment failure and higher M&R costs – which can make deep cuts to your bottom line.

“You can give remanufactured equipment a paint job, put some new tires on and maybe even replace some of the mechanical things, but it’s still old – even 25, 30 years old,” says Doug Hoehn, Executive Vice President of Chassis & Managed Assets at Milestone.

M&R Cost Comparison

With a brand-new chassis, there is minimal to no M&R. When compared to new equipment, overall operating expenses for a refurbished chassis will still be higher. Over time, a new chassis is cheaper to operate because they do not have wear and tear and incur virtually no maintenance expenses.

For example, in a standard chassis pool in the Midwest, maintenance for one year for a Milestone chassis in the COCP (Chicago Ohio Pool) averaged $0.70 per day, compared to the average maintenance of the total pool at $4.44 per day.

In a standard one-year lease period, this means a Milestone chassis costs, on average, $255.50 over one year compared to an average total pool cost of $1,620.60 over the same period of time – making it over six times more expensive to lease a refurbished chassis vs. brand new.

Using a new chassis means you’ll stay on the road longer, reduce maintenance costs (and in turn reduce the amount of time a driver would have to wait for repair) and make substantial increases to your bottom line.

 

Read the Case Study – Quik Pick Express

 


 

Staying Nimble, Flexible.

Milestone’s open architecture plans are designed to meet our clients’ specific goals.

  • Customer: Quik Pick Express

Request the Case Study

Milestone Chassis

New vs. Refurbished Chassis: The Advantages of Radial Tires

Truck drivers must repeatedly replace their tires, as extensive time on the road causes natural wear and tear. Selecting top quality tires, fortified with the latest technology, is key to optimizing tire mileage.

At Milestone, all of our chassis are fitted with new OEM radial tires. Advantages for the driver include:

  • Efficient fuel consumption
  • Longer tread life
  • Improved traction and flotation
  • Improved cut resistance in the tread area
  • Runs cooler than bias tires

Radial vs Bias-Ply Tires

Of the two basic types of tires – radial vs. bias ply – radial tires are far superior in terms of safety and performance. For instance, radial tires feature steel cable beading for greater strength, multiple layers of steel chords at high angle for higher stability, and single ply, steel belt casing allowing for efficient heat dissipation.

According to research, an average tire service could cost up to $1,000 with a new tire, plus three hours or more spent from breakdown to getting back on the road.

“That’s a lot of time and money lost,” says Doug Hoehn, Executive Vice President of Chassis & Managed Assets at Milestone. “And not to mention a frustrated driver and even worse – an angry customer who was expecting an on-time delivery. You’re putting your business at risk on an over-used, thin-tread tire.”

Read the Case Study – SunteckTTS

 


 

The Real Cost of Time Wasted.

When rubber meets road, new chassis outperform refurbished.

  • Customer: SunteckTTS

Request the Case Study

Milestone Trailer Leasing Continues to Invest in Modern Equipment, Adds 1,500 Trailers to Expansive National Fleet

St. Charles, MO (June 6, 2018) – In a continued effort to expand its offering of personalized solutions for customers, Milestone Trailer Leasing has acquired leases for 1,575 dry vans from Heartland Express of North Liberty, Iowa. This move will add additional trailers – manufactured between 2014 and 2017 – equipped with tracking, tire inflation systems and lift pads to Milestone’s already expansive fleet spanning 25 markets.

“Milestone’s depth of industry experience, flexible deal structuring, lender relationships and nationwide branch network uniquely positions the company to craft and execute on this type of transaction,” says Don Clayton, Milestone President and CEO.

New Equipment, More Opportunity

The Milestone – Heartland deal provides Heartland the opportunity to move out of the leased late model fleet that was part of its July 2017 purchase of Interstate Distributor Company (IDC) while providing for a quick and orderly return of all 1,575 trailers to locations throughout Milestone’s nationwide branch network.  Additionally, the structure of the transaction allows Heartland to focus on the replacement of the IDC fleet with trailers made more to its specifications.

“This transaction allows Heartland to execute our financial and fleet strategies effectively and efficiently,” says Michael Gerdin, Heartland President and CEO. “Milestone’s extensive experience in large multi-location trailer fleet programs gave us confidence in working with the Milestone team.”

This announcement comes on the heels of Milestone’s expansive growth in the last three years – including the addition of $400 million of equipment. Inventory comprises 84,000 trailers, chassis, and containers provided to customers under flexible operating lease and rental structures. “The company continues to respond to customer and market demand,” says Clayton. “We are dedicated to driving results for our partners.”

 

 

About Milestone Equipment Holdings, LLC

Milestone is one of the largest and fastest growing transportation equipment leasing companies in the US, operating a diversified fleet of over 84,000 pieces of equipment including Domestic Chassis, Domestic Containers, Marine Chassis, Highway Trailers, Intermodal Trailers, Storage and Convention Trailers, Flatbed Trailers, Refrigerated Containers and Trailers, and other specialty equipment.

Headquartered in St. Charles, MO with an operational center in Chicago and 60+ commercial locations across the country, Milestone has acquired intermodal and highway fleets for our operations since 1995, while managing and leasing equipment on behalf of institutional and private investors. Our customers include trucking companies (over-the-road and LTL), third-party logistics (3PL) companies, package carriers, private shippers, railroads, steamship operators, beneficial cargo owners (BCOs), retailers, manufacturers and other companies throughout the transportation sector. The Milestone fleet allows all of these industry segments to maximize equipment utilization and transportation efficiency without the burden of owning their own equipment.

Our management services include committed peak and surge capacity programs, complex consulting and structured deals (including sale-leaseback transactions and fleet refresh programs), maintenance and telematics consulting and services, comprehensive management of third party transportation equipment assets, and equipment acquisitions and remarketing.

For more information, please visit: https://www.milecorp.com/

 

 

John Horgan

Milestone Names John Horgan as New Chief Financial Officer

CHARLES, MO (April 11, 2018) – Milestone is pleased to announce the addition of John Horgan as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, effective immediately. Horgan will be based in St. Charles, MO and will report directly to Don Clayton, President and Chief Executive Officer.

“I am very happy to join the Milestone team,” says Horgan. “The company has grown rapidly over the past few years and this management team has a clear vision for the future. I am excited to contribute to an organization that is so focused on serving its customers and creating opportunities for its team members.”

Prior to joining Milestone, Horgan served for eight years as CEO or General Manager of three companies in the manufacturing, distribution and software industries. Previously he served for 15 years in a CFO capacity, including large divisional roles at two public companies. During that time, Horgan was responsible for mergers and acquisitions, financing, SEC registrations, LEAN process improvements and margin optimization initiatives. He began his career at Ernst & Young, serving as an auditor and consultant for 12 years at a variety of publicly traded financial services and manufacturing companies.

“Over the past year, we have made great strides in building a world-class management team by promoting from within and adding top talent from outside the company,” says Milestone CEO Don Clayton. “John will be another tremendous addition to our team. His accomplishments as a finance leader speak for themselves, but just as importantly, his CEO experience will give him a broader perspective to help us further improve the customer experience and drive shareholder value.”

Horgan earned his Master of Business Administration and his Bachelor of Business Administration from Saint Louis University. He is a Certified Public Accountant and a Certified Information Systems Auditor.

 

About Milestone Equipment Holdings, LLC

Milestone is one of the largest and fastest growing transportation equipment leasing companies in the US, operating a diversified fleet of over 84,000 pieces of equipment including Domestic Chassis, Domestic Containers, Marine Chassis, Highway Trailers, Intermodal Trailers, Storage and Convention Trailers, Flatbed Trailers, Refrigerated Containers and Trailers, and other specialty equipment.

Headquartered in St. Charles, MO with an operational center in Chicago and approximately 75 commercial locations across the country, Milestone has acquired intermodal and highway fleets for our operations since 1995, while managing and leasing equipment on behalf of institutional and private investors. Our customers include trucking companies (over-the-road and LTL), third-party logistics (3PL) companies, package carriers, private shippers, railroads, steamship operators, beneficial cargo owners (BCOs), retailers, manufacturers and other companies throughout the transportation sector. The Milestone fleet allows all of these industry segments to maximize equipment utilization and transportation efficiency without the burden of owning their own equipment.

Our management services include committed peak and surge capacity programs, complex consulting and structured deals (including sale-leaseback transactions and fleet refresh programs), maintenance and telematics consulting and services, comprehensive management of third party transportation equipment assets, and equipment acquisitions and remarketing.

Meet John Brockmeier

John Brockmeier is a veteran of the industry. With 30 years of experience in transportation and operations management, his wealth of knowledge and skills have helped to build superior teams that support Milestone Trailer Leasing’s comprehensive national network.

Brockmeier shares how he get got started, what urgent issues face the industry, and the secret to good leadership.

Professional Background

Tell us about your role as Director of Operations at Milestone Trailer Leasing. What are your responsibilities?

My responsibility is to oversee all the branches in our national network. I make sure our branches are keeping track of inventory and processing their purchase orders and I also do all of the auditing. I go through every branch, examine their paperwork and make sure everything is going smoothly. We have over 25 locations across the US, so I do a lot of traveling. At the end of 2017, I was traveling almost every week.

How did you get started in this industry?

I started in this industry in 1987 with AJF Trailer Leasing. My advisor from college had connections with the company and encouraged me to start my career there. I went to Chicago and worked there for four months, then moved to Louisville, Kentucky, then worked for the AJF branch in St. Louis. Later, I transferred to AJF corporate headquarters when they started a 24-hour road service. There were a lot of changes in the coming years – AJF merged with XTRA Lease until 1997, then went to Fruehauf Trailer Services from 2000 to 2003. They sold that division to Aurora Trailer Leasing, then sold to Milestone, which I joined in February of 2012.

Personalized Attention

The best thing about your job?

What I like about it is that every day will be different. I don’t know what’s going to be happening, what will unfold. It’s kind of fun. You walk into the day thinking, “What’s going to be the new problem that needs to be solved?”

Also, I enjoy interacting with our team. I like giving them ideas that I’ve used over the years and watching them apply it to their professional lives. One example of this is a trip I made to one of our branches in Chicago. I had completed an audit and unfortunately the personnel received a D rating. I watched the two employees take my ideas, reinforce what we needed to do and they went from a D rating in 2012 to an A in 2017.

What accomplishments are you most proud of?

I’m proud that I’ve been in this industry for 30 years. Coming to work for Milestone has been the highlight. XTRA is the big gorilla in this industry, but I wanted to be in a culture that felt more personalized. At Aurora, it was more accounting driven, if a deal wouldn’t work in their structure they just wouldn’t do it. But at Milestone, if a deal comes us and no matter how goofy it is, we will try to figure out how to make it work. I’ve been very happy to be here and figure out how to serve our customers. Watching these deals happen gives me my greatest sense of accomplishment.

Urgent Issues Facing the Industry

What are the most urgent issues facing the industry right now?

The lack of good drivers. There’s a general lack of accountability and caring about your equipment. I’ve been in this industry for 30 years now. If a driver has a light out, he would replace it. But now they call in for service and get it repaired for them. There’s just not enough quality drivers in the industry.

How is Milestone addressing those challenges?

We can’t recruit drivers for our customers but we can give them better trailers so their drivers don’t tear them up so badly.

On Leadership

Tell us your thoughts about leadership. What do you look for when building a team?

Good communication. From my standpoint, the ideas we put into place get clearly communicated to our field personnel. From there, if they don’t understand something, they need to communicate back with us, and make sure they are totally understanding what is expected of them. The key to a whole team is communications up to down and down back up.

Ahead of the Competition

What sets Milestone apart from the competition?

We are easier to work with than our competition. That is the long and short of it. Compared to other companies, and I’ve worked at a lot of them, they’re not even close.

What is the key to superior customer service?

Number one the people who are willing to do the things not during normal business hours. To make the customer happy. Of our two national accounts, FleetNet and Goodyear, drivers who break down can call into one centralized number to get help. Both vendors have my cell phone number. It’s all about accessibility. It’s a 24-hours-a-day, 365 days a year kind of working relationship. I never turn my cell phone off. I’ll take the call.

Volume of Milestone Chassis

East Coast Shippers: Milestone Has You Covered

Presence in NY/NJ

There are recent accounts that portray truckers as fatigued by the lack of access to quality chassis and rising cost of daily rentals. This creates an ever-challenging business climate for those moving freight out of the Ports of New York and New Jersey. Many are hoping that the talk of a new grey pool in this market will address issues and improve both quality and efficiency.

American Journal of Transportation

Doug Hoehn, Milestone Chassis Company Executive Vice President says: “Why Wait?” Milestone, the Nation’s most comprehensive intermodal equipment lessor – and operator of America’s fastest growing fleet of brand-new chassis – is making a massive investment in the New York and New Jersey area in order to continue to meet customer demand.

As highlighted in a recent American Journal of Transportation (AJOT) article, Milestone provides the best and newest equipment, which saves customers time and money.

You can read the full article here.

Jason Anderson Milestone ChassisFinder

Meet Jason Anderson

 

ChassisFinder

Innovation, opportunity and growth – it has been a phenomenal year for ChassisFinder. The online chassis reservation platform experienced record growth nationwide in 2017 with a stunning 50 percent increase in chassis on-hire during peak in 2017 versus peak in 2016. In addition, Milestone saw an unprecedented 612 percent increase during peak in 2017 versus peak in 2016. Responding to market demand, the company continues to open depots across the country, most recently in Southern California and the Greater Boston area.

And more exciting things are to come.

“We look forward to carrying this momentum into 2018,” says General Manager Jason Anderson. He shares the key to his team’s success, the biggest challenge facing the industry and what he looks forward to in the coming year.

Professional Background

Tell us about your role as General Manager of ChassisFinder.

My first responsibility is to approach equipment owners and let them know why they are at an advantage to put their chassis into the ChassisFinder system or pool. Secondly, I do a lot of work in continuous improvement of our platform. This year, there was an enormous effort put into the system to make the platform more flexible and dependable for our vendors. Thirdly, I engage in a lot of customer service. I get plenty of inquiries. Even when I’m on vacation, I take my cell phone with me. The fourth role and responsibility I have is building TrailerFinder. We’re planning the launch for Q1 2018 and always looking ahead for future opportunities for improvement.

Tell us more about the concept behind ChassisFinder. How does it work?

It was envisioned to be a “Hotels.com” for chassis. If you need a chassis and you need to shop by price, by quantity, by availability, you could find all those attributes for all the equipment you need.

Phenomenal Growth

ChassisFinder has experienced a tremendous amount of growth in 2017. What do you attribute that to?

Better autonomy. Consumer confidence and a strong retail sector this year. We’ve seen a general improvement in the economy across the economy. We have a lot of good people at Milestone that I work with on a daily basis and a strong commercial team to move ChassisFinder forward. They’ve made some very strong deals that were short term and were booked through ChassisFinder.

What are the advantages to an online booking portal?

Customers can book equipment in less than a minute, 24/7. It’s possible for them to pick up a chassis in a few minutes either coordinating with dispatch or making the reservation right from their phone.

Before ChassisFinder, what was the typical way to find a chassis?

The old way was calling someone, negotiating a price, getting approved, signing a contract and finally dispatching a driver. Now, the trucker could sit outside a gate, lease a chassis on their phone, and pick that up in a few minutes. Also, all of the equipment in ChassisFinder is practically brand new – that’s another advantage.

New vs. Refurbished

Let’s talk about the advantage of brand new equipment vs. refurbished. What are the pros of using new?

Old remanufactured equipment is still old. There is risk of older equipment failing. Whether I am the truck driver or the trucking company, I have too much at stake to risk my business or my reputation on an old remanufactured piece of equipment. Older equipment costs more to maintain and remanufactured chassis may not require modern safety amenities such as tire inflation or anti-lock brakes. With a brand new chassis, there is little to no M&R. Plus, you can’t put a cost on peace of mind.

What is the biggest challenge facing your industry today?

Not knowing what the steamship lines are going to do with their chassis. Best case scenario: they decide they don’t want to be the chassis business and ChassisFinder vendors reap those benefits.

Leadership

What’s required in building a good team?

Persistence, intelligence and industry knowledge. If you have a desire to work hard, constantly learn and foster new ideas, you will do very well in this business.

What’s the best thing about your job?

I like helping new customers understand what an asset ChassisFinder is for them. How it can change their business because they are not obligated to sign a term lease for a year or more.

It helps them be more agile. It boosts their business. I like helping new customers realize that and to help them to use ChassisFinder to transform the way they do business.

What’s Ahead

What does the future hold for ChassisFinder? What things are you excited about?

Our growth has been phenomenal in 2017. Moving forward, we need to add new vendors and bolster our customer base. It’s hard to tell what’s next for ChassisFinder since we change gears pretty fast. We’ll probably see more automation and back-office improvements. One thing is for sure, we are very excited about getting TrailerFinder online in 2018.

 

Milestone Chassis Doug Hoehn Headshot

Meet Doug Hoehn

Meet Your Milestone

When Doug Hoehn joined Milestone in 2014, he was tasked with the duty of creating the company’s new Chassis division. In a short period of time and under his leadership, Milestone Chassis has grown to 7,000 chassis strong – all brand new, modern and premium – in 29 locations across the US.

The industry veteran (his career spans over 30 years in transportation) shares the most important ingredients in building a team, the biggest challenge facing the industry, and what accomplishments make him proud.

Professional Background

Tell us about your responsibilities as Executive Vice President of Chassis & Managed Assets at Milestone.

I’ve been involved in the startup for the Milestone Chassis business – the newest of the three product lines. In addition to staffing the organization, I’m responsible for sales, marketing and operations, as well as overseeing some of the operational responsibilities for our intermodal trailer and container business.

Beyond the Chassis group being responsible for managing and procuring our chassis and sites, they manage our peak program and ensure the delivery of trailers and containers. We run about 12,000 trailers for customers during peak season, as well as 3,000 domestic containers. Following peak season, we are responsible for storing the trailers during the year, making sure they are maintained, and then preparing them again to go out on the road for the next peak season.

Growth

You and your team built the Chassis division of Milestone. There’s been a lot of growth in this area of the company since its founding in 2015. What was involved in its creation?

It involved developing a strategy to implementing that strategy and putting inventory in 29 locations across the US. The fleet today is almost 7,000 chassis, all brand new, modern and premium, available for daily rentals, short term rentals and long-term lease.

There’s a lot of discussion around new vs. refurbished chassis. Why is this so important?

At the end of the day, a refurbished chassis is still an old chassis. I think of it this way – you can bring in a beat-up car to someone, get the dings hammered out, give it a nice paint job, and make it look shiny and new. But the reality is, it might still be falling apart on the inside. With an existing chassis, you can do the same thing, give it a paint job and put some new tires on, maybe replace some of the mechanical things like give it new brakes – which may or may not have ABS – maybe replace the lighting to bring that up to spec. And this is what a refurbished chassis is – it may look good on the outside but you really don’t know how reliable it will be when the rubber meets the road.

With a refurbished chassis, compared to new, your overall operating expenses will still be higher than a new piece of equipment, and it still lacks modern technology that we would insist be installed on our own personal vehicles. Over time, a new chassis will be cheaper to operate.

Leadership

Let’s talk about leadership. You’ve build a lot of teams over your career. What’s key in creating good synergy?

When you’re developing a team, of course you must recognize that everybody has different responsibilities, different skills and varying levels of training. Part of our job as leaders is to develop that team to be well-rounded and to grow together. One thing our team here in Burr Ridge (Illinois) will say, is that they all work hard and they play hard, and they do it together. I’m proud that we’ve nurtured that kind of culture.

Give us a recent example of your team working together and accomplishing a goal.

Getting all this equipment ready for peak season was top priority for a long time. The team worked tirelessly and around the clock. They found new vendors and managed and improved the process so we had the entire fleet ready. The deadline was Oct 1. But the team got everything ready by Sept 1. We were one month ahead of schedule. And that was possible because of the team working and delivering it together.

Goals

What achievements are you most proud of?

From a business standpoint, I’m proud of what we have built over the past two years. We took an established brand in the intermodal and over-the-road trailer business and added a third product line. On top of that, we also created an entirely new branding for Milestone.

On a personal level, I have two daughters and a son and I’m very proud of my family. I’m also proud of being a doting grandfather to 1 ½ year-old twin grandchildren.

Any goals for the coming year?

Yes, a personal goal: to get my golf score lower than my bowling score!

Separating Milestone From The Rest

One of the things that sets Milestone apart from the competition is its approach to customer service. How do you keep customer service personalized while also growing as a company?

One of the things we emphasize with our employees is that everyone who picks up the phone and talks to the customer is a sales person. There are all these adages about how it’s easier to lose one person as a customer than it is to gain that person as customer. Our team is always looking for new and innovative ways to help a customer. We genuinely want to provide flexibility. We pride ourselves in tailoring our solutions to provide a better product for our customers.

Challenges

What is the biggest challenge facing the industry today?

The biggest challenge for the chassis industry is the overall age and condition of the existing chassis fleet in the North American market today.

How is Milestone addressing those challenges?

It’s because of this challenge that we have invested in new equipment. The reality is, there is a very large portion of the fleet that operates that is old and outdated and needs to be replaced.

Why Milestone?

What do you like best about your job?

There is no single day that’s the same. Every day presents new challenges. I’m constantly working with people to develop new solutions. I travel tirelessly. I’m always on the road. I’m very rarely in the office. Some people might think this would be a negative, but I enjoy the people I meet along the way. People in the transportation industry are a pleasure to work with. Intermodal is truly multiple modes of transportation and providers, all working together to provide a service. It requires a lot of coordination across divisions and with people all around the world. It’s a very satisfying line of work.

 

 

 

Milestone FEMA Blog Post Featured Image

All Hands On Deck – Contributing to Hurricane Disaster Relief

Hurricane Season 2017

As hurricanes were making landfall in Texas and the Florida Keys, Sarah Johnson’s phone wouldn’t stop ringing. Disaster relief preparations were in motion and Milestone would play a crucial role in getting emergency goods to shelters and relief centers across the Southern US and the Eastern Seaboard.

“It was a mad scramble, but everybody was on deck to help,” says Johnson, Executive Vice President of Highway Operations. “Whether it was making phone calls around the clock, getting employees out in the field or giving up weekends and nights to make sure customers could access equipment – everyone played a crucial role in making all this happen. Which was pretty awesome. “

The Milestone team worked with carriers hauling for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to deploy hundreds of trailers across the country (San Antonio, Houston, Atlanta, Tulsa, Memphis and York, Pennsylvania) to help deliver bottled water and other emergency supplies to evacuees.

In total, Milestone moved some 400 trailers in support of FEMA-related hurricane relief, which was one of the largest in scale the company participated in. Milestone is committed to serving communities around the nation, especially in times of extreme circumstances. This year’s hurricane season proved to be a true test for how local communities, states and the nation would come together to combat Mother Nature. Milestone is honored to have worked with FEMA to provide aid in the areas most affected and will continue to strive to be an industry leader in volunteering efforts.

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